The EU27 Member States (with the exception of the United Kingdom) note that sufficient progress has been made in Phase 1. This means that Phase 2 of the negotiations can begin. In the second phase, the EU and Britain continue to negotiate the Withdrawal Agreement. But they also begin to discuss a period of transition and explore their future relationship. The agreement was revised as part of the Johnson Ministry`s renegotiation in 2019. The amendments adapt about 5% of the text.  The EU and the UK reach a provisional agreement on citizens` rights and the Brexit financial settlement. The new relationship between the EU and the UK will start provided that an agreement has been reached and approved by the EU Member States, the European Parliament and the British Parliament. The United Kingdom triggers Article 50.
This means that negotiations on the UK`s withdrawal from the EU can begin. The EU and the UK have two years to reach an agreement. The House of Commons votes in favour of the Brexit Act. This means that the UK is on track to leave the EU on 31 January. However, the House of Lords and the European Parliament have yet to approve the deal. The British Parliament passes a law obliging the British government to request a postponement of Brexit if there is no agreement with the EU before 19 October 2019. With regard to the Irish border issue, there is a protocol on Northern Ireland (the „backstop“) which is annexed to the agreement and defines a return case position that will only enter into force in the absence of evidence of other effective arrangements before the end of the transitional period. If this is the case, the UK will eclipse the EU`s external common law and Northern Ireland will remain in the internal market aspects until such a manifestation is achieved.
None of the parties can unilaterally withdraw from this customs union. The aim of this backstop agreement is to avoid a „hard“ border in Ireland, where customs controls are necessary.  In addition to an agreement on goods, the UK also wants an agreement on services which made up a large part of its economy. This is not part of the discussions, but separate agreements on issues such as banking are still possible. The UK government and the other 27 EU member states approve the draft agreement. A transitional period now applies until 31 December 2020. During this period, the UK must comply with all EU rules and laws. For businesses and the public, virtually nothing will change. After the transition period, there will be changes, whether or not an agreement is reached on the new relationship between the UK and the EU. . .